Papers in scientific journals


  1. Xu, S., Zhang, Q., Lü, L., Mariani, M.(2019): Recommending investors for new startups by integrating network diffusion and investors’ domain preference. doi Science direct Weblink to Article


  1. Blessing, G., & Natter, M. (2019). Do Mystery Shoppers Really Predict Customer Satisfaction and Sales Performance? Journal of Retailing.
  2. Brünner, T., Reiner, J., Natter, M., & Skiera, B. (2019). Prospect theory in a dynamic game: Theory and evidence from online pay-per-bid auctions. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 164, 215–234.
  3. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., & Algesheimer, R. (2019). How to Obtain Comparable Measures for Cross-National Comparisons. Kolner Zeitschrift Fur Soziologie Und Sozialpsychologie, 71(Suppl 1), 157–186.
  4. Davidov, E., Seddig, D., Gorodzeisky, A., Raijman, R., Schmidt, P., & Semyonov, M. (2019). Direct and indirect predictors of opposition to immigration in Europe: individual values, cultural values, and symbolic threat. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–21.
  5. Fischer, R., Ferreira, M. C., Van Meurs, N., Gok, K., Jiang, D. Y., Fontaine, J. R. J., Harb, Ch., Cieciuch, J., Achoui, M., Mendoza, M. S. D., Hassan, A., Achmadi, D., Mogaji, A., Abubakar, A. (2019). Does organizational formalization facilitate voice and helping organizational citizenship behaviors? It depends on (national) uncertainty norms. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(1), 125–134.
  6. Heath, A., Davidov, E., Ford, R., Green, E. G. T., Ramos, A., & Schmidt, P. (2019). Contested terrain: explaining divergent patterns of public opinion towards immigration within Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 0(0), 1–14.
  7. Kindschi, M., Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Ehlert, A., & Rauhut, H., Tesone, C. J., Algesheimer, R. (2019). Values in adolescent friendship networks. Network Science, 1–25.
  8. Liao, H., Liu, M. K., Mariani, M. S., Zhou, M., & Wu, X. (2019). Temporal similarity metrics for latent network reconstruction: The role of time-lag decay. Information Sciences, 489, 182–192.
  9. Liu, H., Yang, N., Yang, Z., Lin, J., & Zhang, Y. (2019). The impact of firm heterogeneity and awareness in modeling risk propagation on multiplex networks. Physica A, 1–17.
  10. Liu, H., Yang, N., Yang, Z., Zhang, Y., & Lin, J. (2019). Modeling and simulations of the cascading failure of multiple interdependent R&D networks under risk propagation. Physics Letters A.
  11. Mariani, M. S., Medo, M., & Lafond, F. (2019). Early identification of important patents: Design and validation of citation network metrics. Technological Forecasting and Social Change.
  12. Mariani, M. S., Ren, Z. M., Bascompte, J., & Tessone, C. J. (2019, June 15). Nestedness in complex networks: Observation, emergence, and implications. Physics Reports, Vol. 813, pp. 1–90.
  13. Medo, M., Zeng, A., Zhang, Y.-C., & Mariani, M. S. (2019). Optimal timescale for community detection in growing networks. New Journal of Physics, 21(9), 093066.
  14. Meuleman, B., Abts, K., Schmidt, P., Pettigrew, T. F., & Davidov, E. (2019). Economic conditions, group relative deprivation and ethnic threat perceptions: a cross-national perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 9451.
  15. Pokropek, A., Davidov, E., & Schmidt, P. (2019). A Monte Carlo Simulation Study to Assess The Appropriateness of Traditional and Newer Approaches to Test for Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 00(00), 1–21.
  16. Schlueter, E., Masso, A., & Davidov, E. (2019). What factors explain anti-Muslim prejudice? An assessment of the effects of Muslim population size, institutional characteristics and immigration-related media claims. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 9451.
  17. Seddig, D., Maskileyson, D., & Davidov, E. (2019). The comparability of measures in the ageism module of the fourth round of the European Social Survey, 2008-2009. Survey Research Methods.
  18. Skimina, E., Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. H., Davidov, E., & Algesheimer, R. (2019). Behavioral signatures of values in everyday behavior in retrospective and real-time self-reports. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(281), 1–23.
  19. Tasca, P., & Tessone, C. J. (2019). A Taxonomy of Blockchain Technologies: Principles of Identification and Classification. Ledger, 4, 1–39.
  20. Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H., Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Alessandri, G., & Marsicano, G. (2019). Stability and change of basic personal values in early adolescence: A 2year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality, (July), 1–17.
  21. Zhang, S., Medo, M., Lü, L., & Mariani, M. S. (2019). The long-term impact of ranking algorithms in growing networks. Information Sciences, 488, 257–271.
  22. Zhou, F., Lü, L., & Mariani, M. S. (2019). Fast influencers in complex networks. Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 74, 69–83.


  1. Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M. Schwartz, S. H., Schoen, H., Bain, P. G., Silvester, J., Cieciuch, J., Pavlopoulos, V., Bianchi, G., Kirmanoglu, H., Baslevent, C., Mamali, C., Manzi, J., Katayama, M., Posnova, T., Tabernero, C., Torres, C., Verkasalo, M., Lönnqvist, J-E., Vondráková, E., Caprara, M. G. (2018). The contribution of religiosity to ideology: Empirical evidences from five continents. Cross-Cultural Research, 52(5), 524-541. DOI: 10.1177/1069397118774233
  2. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Algesheimer, R., Schmidt, P. (2018). Testing for approximate measurement invariance of human values in the European Social Survey. Sociological Methods & Research, 47(4), 665-686. DOI: 10.1177/0049124117701478
  3. Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Schmidt, P. (2018). The cross-country measurement comparability in the immigration module of the European Social Survey 2014-15. Survey Research Methods, 12(1), 15-27. DOI: 10.18148/srm/2018.v12i1.7212
  4. Davidov, E., Dülmer, H., Cieciuch, J., Kuntz, A., Seddig, D., Schmidt, P. (2018). Explaining measurement nonequivalence using multilevel structural equation modeling: The case of attitudes toward citizenship rights. Sociological Methods & Research, 47(, 729-760. DOI: 10.1177/0049124116672678
  5. Davidov, E., Muthen, B., Schmidt, P. (2018). Measurement invariance in cross-national studies: challenging traditional approaches and evaluating new ones (introduction to a special issue of Sociological Methods & Research), Sociological Methods & Research, 47(4), 631-636. DOI: 10.1177/0049124118789708
  6. Iannelli F., Mariani M. S., Sokolov I. (2018), Influencers identification in complex networks through reaction-diffusion dynamics, Physical Review E, 98, 062302. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.98.062302
  7. Lin J.-H., Tessone C. J., Mariani M. S. (2018), Nestedness maximization in complex networks through the fitness-complexity algorithm, Entropy 20 (10), 768.
  8. Medo M., Mariani M. S., Lu L. (201, Link Prediction in Bipartite Nested Networks, Entropy 20 (10), 777.
  9. Meuleman, B., Davidov, E., Billiet, J. (2018). Modeling multiple-country repeated cross-sections: A societal growth curve model for studying the effect of the economic crisis on perceived ethnic threat. Methods, data, analyses 12(2), 185-210.     
    DOI: 10.12758/mda.2017.10
  10. Meuleman, B., Davidov. E.,  Seddig, D. (2018a). Editorial: A special issue on the topic Comparative survey analysis: Comparability and equivalence of measures. Methods, data, analyses, 12(1), 3-6.
  11. Meuleman, B., Davidov. E.,  Seddig, D. (2018b). Editorial: Comparative survey analysis – models, techniques, and applications. Methods, data, analyses, 12(2), 181-184.
  12. Najderska, M., Cieciuch, J. (2018). The structure of character strengths: Variable- and person-centered approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-12.
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00153
  13. Ren, Z.-M., Mariani M. S., Medo, M., Zhang, Y.-C. (2018). Randomizing growing networks with a time-respecting null model. Physical Review E 97(5), 052311.
  14. Rudnev, M., Lytkina, E., Davidov, E., Schmidt, P. (2018). Testing Measurement Invariance for a Second-Order Factor: A Cross-National Test of the Alienation Scale. Methods, data, analyses 12(1), 47-76. DOI: 10.12758/mda.2017.11
  15. Schönenberger, L., Tanase, R. (2018). Controlling complex policy problems: A multimethodological approach using system dynamics and network controllability. Journal of Simulation, 12(2), 162-170. DOI: 10.1080/17477778.2017.1387335
  16. Seddig, D., Davidov, E. (2018). Values, attitudes toward interpersonal violence, and interpersonal violent behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 604.  
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00604
  17. Skimina, E., Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. H., Davidov, E., Algesheimer, R. (2018). Testing the circular structure and importance hierarchy of value states in real-time behaviors. Journal of Research in Personality, 74, 42-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2018.02.001
  18. Solé-Ribalta A., Tessone C. J., Mariani M. S., Borge-Holthoefer J. (20. Revealing in-block nestedness: Detection and benchmarking. Physical Review E. 97(6), 062302. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.062302
  19. Tanase, R., Tessone, C. J., Algesheimer, R. (2018). Identification of influencers through the wisdom of crowds. PLOS ONE, 13(7), 1-15. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200109
  20. Vaccario, G., Tomasello, M. V., Tessone, C. J., Schweitzer, F. (2018). Quantifying knowledge exchange in R&D networks: a data-driven model. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 28(3), 461-493. DOI: 10.1007/s00191-018-0569-1
  21. Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Piotrowski, P. P., Osin, E. N., Cieciuch, J. …., Maltby, J. (2018). The mental health continuum-short form: The structure and application for cross-cultural studies – A 38 nation study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74, 1034-1052.
    DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22570
  22. Zhang, Z., Liu, L., Wang, H., Li, J., Hu, D., Yan, J., Algesheimer, R., Meierer, M. (2018). Collective behavior learning by differentiating personal preference from peer influence. Knowledge-Based Systems, 159, 233-243. DOI: 10.1016/j.knosys.2018.06.027


  1. Cabooter, E., Weijters, B., De Beuckelaer, A., Davidov, E. (2017). Is extreme response style domain specific? Findings from two studies in four countries. Quality & Quantity, 51(6), 2605-2622. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-016-0411-5
  2. Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H., Schoen, H., Bain, P. G., Silvester, J., Cieciuch, J., Pavlopoulos, V., Bianchi, G., Caprara, M. G., Kirmanoglu, H., Baslevent, C., Mamali, C., Manzi, J., Katayama, M., Posnova, T., Tabernero, C., Torres, C., Verkasalo, M., Lönnqvist, J.-E., Vondráková, E., Caprara, M. G. (2017). Basic values, ideological self-placement, and voting: A cross-cultural study. Cross-Cultural Research, 51(4), 388-411. DOI: 10.1177/1069397117712194
  3. Chen, J., Chen, H., Wu, Z., Hu, D., Pan, J. Z. (2017). Forecasting smog-related health hazard based on social media and physical sensor. Information Systems (IS), 64, 281-291.
  4. Davidov, E., Semyonov, M. (2017). Attitudes toward immigrants in European societies. International Journal of Comparative Sociology 58(5), 359-366.
  5. Delre, S. A., Panico C., Wierenga, B. (2017). Competitive strategies in the motion picture industry: An ABM to study investment decisions, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34, 69-99. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijresmar.2016.05.005
  6. Grimm, A., Tessone, C. J. (2017). Analysing the sensitivity of nestedness detection methods. Applied Network Science. DOI: 10.1007/s41109-017-0057-9
  7.  Hercowitz-Amir, A., Raijman, R., Davidov, E. (201. Host or hostile? Attitudes towards asylum seekers in Israel and in Denmark. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 58(5), 416-439. DOI: 10.1177/0020715217722039
  8. Kuntz, A., Davidov, E., Semyonov, M. (2017). The dynamic relations between economic conditions and anti-immigrant sentiment: A natural experiment in times of the European economic crisis. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 58(5), 392-415. 
    DOI: 10.1177/0020715217690434
  9. Rosenbaum, M. S., Kelleher, C., Friman, M., Kristensson, P., Scherer, A. (2017). Re-placing place in marketing: A resource-exchange place perspective. Journal of Business Research, 79, 281-289.
  10. Różycka-Tran, J., Truong Thi, K. H., Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. H. (2017). Universals and specifics of the structure and hierarchy of basic human values in Vietnam. Health Psychological Report, 5(3), 193-204. DOI:10.5114/hpr.2017.65857
  11. Sagiv, L., Roccass, S., Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. (2017). Personal values in human life. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 630-639. DOI: 10.1038/s41562-017-0185-3
  12. Schwartz, H. S., Cieciuch, J., Vecchione, M., Torres, C., Dirilem-Gumus, O., Butenko, T. (2017). Value tradeoffs propel and inhibit behavior: Validating the 19 refined values in four countries. European Journal of Social Psychology, 47(3), 241-258.       
    DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2228
  13. Strus, W., Cieciuch, J. (2017). Towards a synthesis of personality, temperament, motivation, emotion and mental health models within the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits. Journal of Research in Personality, 66, 70-95.        
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.12.002
  14. Yang, Z., Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U. M. (2017). When ethical transgressions of customers have beneficial long-term effects in retailing: An empirical investigation. Journal of Retailing, 93(4), 420-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.jretai.2017.09.005
  15. Yang, Z., Perotti, J. I., Tessone, C. J. (2017). Hierarchical benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. Physical Review E 96(5), 052311.
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.052311
  16. Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. A., Piotrowski, J. P., Cieciuch, J. … Maltby, J. (2017). Measurement invariance of personal well-being index (PWI-8) across 26 countries. Journal of Happiness Studies, 18(6), 1697-1711. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-016-9795-0
  17. Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. A., Piotrowski, J. P., Cieciuch, J. …Wills-Herrera, E., (20. Measurement of psychological entitlement in 28 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 33(3), 207-217. DOI: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000286


  1. Algesheimer, R., Bagozzi, R. P., Dholakia, U. M. (2016). Key informant models for measuring group-level variables in small groups: Application to plural subject theory, Sociological Methods and Research, 25(3), 1-37. DOI: 10.1177/0049124115613782
  2. Beierlein, C., Kuntz, A., Davidov, E. (2016). Universalism, conservation and attitudes toward minority groups. Social Science Research, 58, 68-79.   
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.02.002
  3. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Algesheimer, R. (2016). The stability and change of value structure and priorities in childhood: A longitudinal study. Social Development, 25(, 503-527. DOI: 10.1111/sode.12147
  4. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E. (2016). Establishing measurement invariance across online and offline samples. A tutorial with the software packages Amos and Mplus. Studia Psychologica, 15(2), 83-99. DOI: 10.21697/sp.2015.14.2.06
  5. Delre, S. A., Broekhuizen, T. L. J., Bijmolt, T. H. A. (2016). The Effects of Shared Consumption on Product Life Cycles and Advertising Effectiveness: The Case of the Motion Picture Market, Journal of Marketing Research, 53(4), 608-627. DOI: 10.1509/jmr.14.0097
  6. Kostyra, D. S., Reiner, J., Natter, M., Klapper, D. (201. Decomposing the effects of online customer reviews on brand, price, and product attributes, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 33(1), 11-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijresmar.2014.12.004
  7. Titzmann, P. F., Serwata, O. J., Silbereisen, R. K., Davidov, E. (2016). A comparative perspective on mothers’ ethnic homophily in German and Israeli minority groups. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(8), 1076-1096.  DOI: 10.1177/0022022116658245
  8. Tomasello, M., Tessone, C. J., Schweitzer, F. (2016). A model of dynamic rewiring and knowledge exchange in R&D networks. Advances in Complex Systems 19(1), 1650004. DOI: 10.1142/S0219525916500041
  9. Yang, Z., Algesheimer, R., Tessone, C. J. (2016). A comparative analysis of community detection algorithms on artificial networks. Scientific Reports, 6, 30750. DOI: 10.1038/srep30750


  1. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Oberski, D.L., Algesheimer, R. (2015). Testing for measurement invariance by detecting local misspecification and an illustration on value measurements. European Political Science, 14, 521-538. DOI: 10.1057/eps.2015.64
  2. Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Schmidt, P., Meuleman, B., Algesheimer, R., Hausherr, M. (2015). The comparability of attitudes toward immigration in the European Social Survey: Exact versus approximate equivalence. Public Opinion Quarterly, 79, 244-266. DOI:10.1093/poq/nfv008
  3. Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J., Negru, O., Crocetti, E. (2015). Relationships between identity and well-being in Italian, Polish and Romanian emerging adults. Social Indicators Research, 121(, 727-743. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-014-0668-9
  4. Meuleman, B., Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Billiet, J., Schmidt, P. (2015). Meetequivalentie in internationaal vergelijkend onderzoek [Measurement invariance in international comparative research]. Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, 35(, 261-281.
  5. Perotti, J. I., Tessone, C. J., Caldarelli, G. (201. Hierarchical mutual information for the comparison of hierarchical community structures in complex networks. Physical Review E, 92(6), 062825.
  6. Sarrasin, O., Green, E. G. T., Fasel, N., Davidov, E. (2015). Does survey respondents’ immigration background affect the measurement and prediction of immigration attitudes? An illustration in two steps. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 27 (2), 264-276. DOI: 10.1093/ijpor/edu015
  7. Tomasello, M.V., Tessone, C. J., Schweitzer, F. (2015). The effect of R&D collaborations on firms’ technological positions. In Proceedings of the 10th International Forum IFKAD, 260–276.
  8. Vecchione, M., Caprara, G. V., Schwartz, S. H., Cieciuch, J., Schoen, H., Silvester, J., Bain, P., Bianchi, G., Kirmanoglu, H., Baslevent, C., Mamali, C., Manzi, J., Pavlopoulos, V., Posnova, T., Torres, C., Verkasalo, M., Lönnqvist J-E, Vondráková, E., Alessandri, G. (2015). Personal values and political activism: A cross-national study. British Journal of Psychology, 106(1), 84-106. DOI: 10.1111/bjop.12067
  9. Zercher, F., Schmidt, P., Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E. (2015). The comparability of the universalism value over time and across countries in the European Social Survey: Exact vs. approximate measurement invariance. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-11.
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00733


  1. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., Algesheimer, R., Schwartz, S. H. (2014). Comparing results of an exact versus an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: A cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(982), 1-10. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00982
  2. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Vecchione, M., Beierlein, C., Schwartz, S. H. (2014). The cross-national invariance properties of a new scale to measure 19 basic human values. A test across eight countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(5), 764-779. DOI: 10.1177/0022022114527348
  3. Cieciuch, J., Davidov, E., Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H. (2014). A hierarchical structure of basic human values in a third-order confirmatory factor analysis. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 73(, 177-182. DOI: 10.1024/1421-0185/a000134
  4. Cieciuch, J., Łaguna, M. (201. Wielka Piatka i nie tylko. Cechy osobowości i ich pomiar. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 17(2), 239-247.
  5. Davidov, E., Meuleman, B., Cieciuch, J., Schmidt, P., Billiet, J. (2014). Measurement equivalence in cross-national research. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 55-75. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043137
  6. Davidov, E., Meuleman, B., Schwartz, S. H., Schmidt, P. (2014). Individual values, cultural embeddedness, and anti-immigration sentiments: Explaining differences in the effect of values on attitudes toward immigration across Europe. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 66 (Suppl), 263-285. DOI: 10.1007/s11577-014-0274-5
  7. Hochman, O., Davidov, E. (2014). Relations between cultural and emotional integration: The case of Germany. European Sociological Review, 30, 344-359. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcu043
  8. Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J., Keyes, C. L. M. (2014). The Polish adaptation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 104-109. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.011
  9. Kuntz, A., Davidov, E., Schwartz, S. H., Schmidt, P. (2014). Human values, legal regulation, and approval of homosexuality in European countries: A cross-country comparison. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 120-134.    
    DOI: 10.1002/ejsp.2068
  10. Rowiński, T., Cieciuch, J., Oakland, T. (2014). The factorial structure of four temperament styles and measurement invariance across gender and age groups. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 32(1), 77-82.
    DOI: 10.1177/0734282913487045
  11. Schwartz, S. H., Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Bain, P., Bianchi, G., Caprara, M. G., Cieciuch, J., Kirmanoglu, H., Baslevent, C., Lönnqvist, J-E., Mamali, C., Manzi, J., Pavlopoulos, V., Posnova, T., Schoen, H., Silvester, J., Tabernero, C., Torres, C., Verkasalo, M., Vondráková, E., Welzel, C., Zaleski, Z. (2014). Basic personal values underlie and give coherence to political values: A cross national study in 15 countries. Political Behavior, 36(4), 899-930. DOI: 10.1007/s11109-013-9255-z
  12. Strus, W., Cieciuch, J. (2014). Poza wielką piątkę - przegląd nowych modeli struktury osobowości [Beyond the Big Five – review of new models of personality structure]. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 19(1), 17-49.
  13. Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., Rowiński, T. (2014). The Polish adaptation of the IPIP-BFM-50 questionnaire for measuring five personality traits in the lexical approach. Annals of Psychology, 17(2), 327-346.
  14. Topolewska, E., Skimina, E., Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., Rowiński, T. (20. The short IPIP-BFM-20 Questionnaire for measuring the Big Five. Annals of Psychology, 17(2), 367-384.


  1. Cieciuch, J., Schwartz, S. H., Vecchione, M. (2013). Applying the refined values Theory to past data: What can researchers gain? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(8), 1215-1234. DOI: 10.1177/0022022113487076
  2. Coromina, L., Davidov, E. (2013). Evaluating measurement invariance for social and political trust in western Europe over four measurement time points (2002-2008). ASK. Research & Methods, 22(1), 37-54.